Author Archive

Cyclists need more space at junctions A well designed approach will ensure that the junction is legible and predictable for all road users. Cyclists must be considered at the outset of the design process and fully integrated within the overall junction solution. This section discusses some of the key design issues that should be considered […]

Weaving is a mechanism by which cyclists wishing to turn right will move across traffic while approaching a junction so as to get into the correct road position or lane. Mixed Traffic In mixed traffic, cyclists should be in a central position within the traffic lane already, and a simple hand signal coupled with a […]

ASLs are used at signalised junctions to facilitate stacking of higher volumes of straight ahead cycle movements, and also to accommodate right-turning cycle movements. They permit cyclists to stop and wait in a forward position, ahead of stopped vehicular traffic. ASLs allow cyclists to commence the straight ahead or right turning movement before the other […]

Housing and access Parks and open space Communication and information points ATMs and postal services Meeting and gathering Play and recreation Shops including window display Social and community services Shelter and public convenience Heritage and architectural value Services (gas, water, sewerage etc.)

Pedestrians – walking, crossing Cycling Vehicular traffic (all modes) see Road Classification Section 1.6, Traffic Management Guidelines http://www.dto.ie/traffic_manual.pdf Drop-offs and pick-ups Access to property Turning Abnormal vehicle manoeuvres Parking of vehicles and bicycles Bus stops – waiting and crossing to and from the bus Loading and delivery Refuse collection

1. There are two ways to use this graph Choose your preferred cycle environment Choose the type of facility you would like to have (e.g. mixed streets), and then reduce the speeds and volumes of traffic to an appropriate level. This approach is appropriate when the designer’s intention is to emphasise an informal, calmed, relaxed […]

Wide shared pedestrian priority area (N4, Dublin) The key determinant of whether to mix cyclists and pedestrians on bridges is the speed of the bike. This is influenced by the length and slope of the bridge. Non-traffic short flat bridges are suitable for shared use with pedestrian priority. However, longer bridges where cyclists are likely […]

Shared facility should be much wider Shared facilities are disliked by both pedestrians and cyclists and result in reduced Quality of Service for both modes. With the exception of purpose-designed shared streets, shared facilities should be avoided in urban areas as far as possible. Where shared facilities cannot be avoided, there are a number of […]

The Principles of Sustainable Safety, when applied to cyclists and pedestrians, would suggest that both modes be should be segregated whenever possible. Functionality Pedestrian areas accommodate a wide variety of activity apart from walking, including standing, waiting, meeting, talking, watching etc. Cycling in proximity to people, gates, entrances, doorways, etc. is not recommended as it […]

Cycle track inside parked cars (Copenhagen). Drivers door opens in traffic, not cyclist. Streets can be busy places, and include pedestrians, cyclists and other vehicles. The nature of pedestrians is that they are much less predictable than cyclists and other road users who are generally moving from A to B. Pedestrians can stop at any […]

Lack of clarity for all road users Factors influencing the appropriate choice of link type include: Space Required This Manual recommends calculating the optimum width required for any given situation using the Width Calculator, and then seeking to establish how it can be accommodated. It is not acceptable to simply provide whatever space is left […]

Junction Layout The location of the junction should be obvious to everyone approaching the junction. In addition, all users should understand the shape of any junction (e.g. T-junction, crossroad, roundabout etc), the movements permitted at it, and the junction control system (priority, signalised, lollipop etc.). Junction Approaches All road users should be guided to their […]

Most local authorities have a well-developed urban lighting maintenance programme, operated in conjunction with the Electricity Supply Board (ESB). As bulbs wear out, or light poles are damaged, the local authority lighting inspectors systematically notify the ESB for attention. The cycle-specific maintenance issues are principally related to the quality of the light to illuminate the […]

Road line visibility is an important contributor to the Legibility of a design. Worn markings will be less visible in the dark and wet, and make result in the driver (or cyclist) misreading the road layout. Visible road markings are a requirement for successful penalising of drivers who disregard such markings. Locally worn road markings […]

Overgrown vegetation needs to be cut back Roots and weeds tend to be a problem that is associated with cycle tracks. As cycle tracks have significantly less construction depth, it is easier for roots to undermine the cycle track, and “pop” the surface. Again, systematic spraying of weeds tends to deal with road and streetside […]

Poor drainage maintenance Ponding affects cyclists directly: the standing water can render routes impassable, by slowing bicycles down to a stop; the ponding can hide hazards (debris, holes etc.) making the route dangerous; it can also make the route slippy, and difficult to use brakes on. Ponding and poor drainage can also indirectly affect cyclists; […]

Poorly located ironmongery The principal problems for cyclists associated with ironmongery are as follows: Poorly located gullies, lids Gully slots running parallel to cycle wheels Differential settlement – ironmongery either sunk or proud compared with the surrounding surface Slippery flat steel surfaces Temporary steel-plate roadworks Broken or loose lids These basic and reasonably obvious problems […]

Uneven surface The principal surface defects are potholes, break up of coloured surface, poor reinstatement of previous roadworks, joint movement etc. Depending on the degree of deterioration, these can affect cycling safety. Design options Proper specification of materials Proper detailing of construction joint locations (always at right angles to bicycle wheel) On site supervision of […]

Incomplete reinstatement While surface failure can occur anywhere, there tends to be more wear and tear on bus routes. Buses end to be the slowest moving and heaviest vehicle in urban roads and streets. They are a major cause of surface deterioration, especially regarding rutting (around bus stops and slow sections of route) and joint […]

Built up grit is hazardous Winter gritting and road works / reinstatements tend to deposit grit and small stones at the edge of the road where cyclists ride. If cyclists pass across grit or larger loose material, (especially with narrow “racing” wheels), this can result in loss of balance and result in accidents. Design options […]

Broken glass causes punctures This is the main cause of punctures, and a deterrent to continued cycling. The principal sources are (i) broken panels at bus stops (ii) broken bottles or jars, including around litter bins (iii) where parked cars have been interfered with Design options Locate bus shelter a distance from the cyclist (see […]

Wet leaves are slippy These are extremely dangerous to cycle on when wet. If cyclists have to stop, turn or veer on surfaces with wet leaves, they are likely to lose control and fall over. Leave are a major cause for blocked drains, ponding etc. Design Options set back trees more than 5m from cyclists […]

Preventative programmes have three components: Inspection Damaged facilities must be identified Scheduled inspections should record the following: Design flaws – lips, poor transitions and poor quality reinstatements; Surface defects – longitudinal and transverse cracks, holes or general surface break-up; Debris – grit, glass and leaves; Height restrictions – where trees or signage reduce the […]

A standard basic maintenance programme will include the following: Mechanical sweeping every 2 months Cutting back overgrowth twice a year (outside bird nesting period) Clearing gullies twice a year To achieve this, all cycle routes should be examined on a priority basis between late August and mid-October for evidence of ponding, blockages, debris build up, […]

Commonly encountered problems that can be avoided at the design and specification stage include wrongly orientated gully gratings, badly fitting manhole covers, ineffective drainage systems, incorrect or missing road markings, surface unevenness and surface failure. For further detailed discussion on appropriate detailed design, see Getting the Details Right

The need for maintenance and the ease of maintenance can be minimised at the design stage by careful attention to the following in particular: Selection of materials, including sub surface materials Drainage, including ponding Type of cycle facility Proximity to street furniture Proximity to vegetation Maintenance vehicles – adequate width and access points

The role of maintenance is especially relevant in meeting the cyclist’s requirements for Road Safety, Attractiveness and Comfort. Road Safety:   Any reduction in safety, whether actual or perceived, will deter cyclists from using the facility.       Attractiveness:   A well maintained cycle facility will be attractive to all users, including beginners and […]

Proper maintenance is essential to the safe use of cycle facilities. Poor maintenance regimes that do not address defective surfaces, debris and unevenness etc will undermine the functionality and even the legibility of cycling facilities. This will reduce the actual and perceived safety levels.

The NTA manual identifies key principles and approaches. However, cycle parking knowledge and design is comprehensive and well developed in Europe, and provide solutions that have been developed in cities and countries with far greater experience of cycle parking issues. Please consult the following for more information around these: Danish Bicycle Parking Manual: www.celis.dk/Bicycle_Parking_Manual_Screenversion.pdf European […]

Cycle parking areas with a large number of parking places need careful design, and the parking area layout needs to be borne is mind when selecting the type of rack or stand to be used. In general, frame-supporting stands are more appropriate for small parking clusters of up to up to 10 or 15 stands. […]

There are many different clamps, racks and stands for public bicycle parking available from a wide range of manufacturers and suppliers. They can be categorised into two basic types: Front-Fork holding Front fork-holding clamps and racks are space efficient. They are suitable where convenience of parking and removal is important, but only where bike security […]

All bicycle parking facilities should be capable of performing the basic functions of supporting the bicycle from falling over, protecting it against theft allowing the cyclist room to position/ lock / unlock the bike. Consideration should also be given to lighting protection against the weather ease of access requirements at public transport Bicycle Stands All […]

Planning Authorities should include a requirement for bicycle parking in conditioning new development permissions. The following table gives guidance on the minimum number of spaces which should be provided initially at new private and public facilities. However, more generous provision should be considered in district, town and city centres, around public transport hubs, and on […]

On-street parking should be the central “public” element in any bicycle parking strategy. On-street bicycle parking is highly visible and: promotes a strong pro-cycling message provides cyclists with kerb-free access to cycle parking does not compromise or affect pedestrians if properly installed needs no land/property acquisition can be installed easily, and at low cost, as […]

Lack of parking facility results in obstruction for pedestrians The process involves six steps as follows: Step 1: Data Collection For new development proposals, cycle access and appropriate parking provision should be considered as a matter of course. For existing locations, the authority should conduct regular (at least annual) counts and surveys at the following […]

The following gives an overview of the varying characteristics of parking at different locations that should be considered in determining the most appropriate parking facility. Residential Convenience is essential for frequently used bicycles, and preferably not via living areas Private parking should accommodate residents and visitors Shared parking facilities can be suitable for multiple dwellings […]

In providing sufficient appropriate cycle parking, the designer will need to consider the relative merits of convenience, cost and quality. Convenience Ease of parking and retrieval of bicycles at dwellings compared to the ease of access to the car; Short term, high turnover public parking facilities are required near actual destinations; Longer term secure parking […]

There are many different types of bicycle and bicycle value, different cycle parking duration, and different locations. The Sheffield Stand is not the solution for all situations. Convenience is less important for bicycles that are only used occasionally. Cyclists will consider the following: Bicycle-related: How valuable is the bike? Has the bicycle particular features such […]

A strategic approach to the provision of bicycle parking facilities will contribute to: Promoting modal shift – locating cycle parking conveniently to destinations, building entrances etc., and reminding people of the bicycle; Improving the quality of cycling facilities – where cyclists and their are fully considered; Well-designed cycle parking in public spaces – well planned, […]

Good detail for cyclists but should also be applied for pedestrians Where there is a high frequency of driveways, consideration could be given to either a continuous raised cycle track or a segregated at-grade cycle lane. Alternatively, the route could be downgraded as an access route, with speed restrictions implemented and advisory cycle lanes provided. […]

Where the cycle track or pedestrian footpath is immediately adjacent to the carriageway, the vehicular ramp is best provided by a bevelled kerb. Bevelled kerbs at entrances may need to be wider than the standard kerb width depending on the level change. Where there is a verge between the cycle track and carriageway, the ramp […]

Short ramps at kerbs to facilitate vehicular traffic – see Short Ramps below. The footpath and cycle facility should be pulled right across the entrance(s) such that there is no change in vertical alignment of cycle facility. Continuous surface materials reinforce the continuity of pedestrian and cyclist priority across the entrance. At certain entrances with […]

Legibility The cyclist passing the gate, as with pedestrians, always has priority over access or egress traffic. Specifically, the designer should avoid the use of vehicular aprons. Functionality Entrances should be designed in such a way that vehicles can safely enter and exit the property, without comprising the cycling or pedestrian function. Specifically, the cycle […]

This section provides detail design advice in relation to the appropriate selection of light fittings, lighting levels, the correct positioning of street lighting and ensuring the safety of users. Road/Street Category The height of lighting column to be provided will depend on the type of road, e.g. whether it is a Distributor, Local Collector […]

The design, installation and maintenance of public lighting measures should be carried out in accordance with the Codes of Practice and reference guidelines listed below. Any proposed derivations should be subject to consultation with, and agreement by, the relevant Local Authority Public Lighting Department. BS 5489-1:2003 Code of practice for the design of road lighting […]

Well-designed public lighting increases the attractiveness of the route and gives the cyclist a greater sense of security. It can also increase the accessibility and utility of the route. Street lighting helps cyclists to see potential hazards such as street furniture, gullies, broken glass etc, but also to see other road users. Street lighting should […]

This section provides advice in relation to the provision of effective drainage, and commentary on how certain detail design can either improve or hinder drainage and cycling. Choice of Cycle Facility On-road cycle lanes and mixed use streets are frequently the preferred retro-fit option given the limited changes to existing infrastructure, including drainage, that […]

The drainage of a cycle route must aim to remove surface water quickly and efficiently, in a manner that is cycle-friendly, and consistent with sustainable drainage principles. Continuous side entry drainage kerbs are generally preferred so that the entire road surface is available for cycling and not interrupted by gullies.

The standard of drainage associated with cycle routes must be more effective than that for motorised vehicular routes. This is because: Bicycle braking systems and tyres are not as effective in the wet – it is harder to stop, and there is more risk of skidding in the rain. Poor drainage increases the likelihood of […]

Principles Underpinning Development of the Quality Bus Network and Cycling Under the Government’s Smarter Travel policy there is strong commitment to encourage alternatives to the car, particularly for urban commuting, with very ambitious targets set for modal shift. The bus is seen as a key player in offering an alternative to the car and the […]

The primary aim of this Strategy is to reduce collisions, deaths and injuries on Irish roads. In terms of fatalities this is an average of 21 per month (2007). The Road Safety Authority has identified a number of key behaviours to be changed by the actions set out in this Strategy: Inappropriate speeding Impaired driving […]

The “Strategy for the Development of Irish Cycle Tourism” was developed to determine: how best to renew the popularity of cycling in Ireland, how to encourage visitors to come to cycle in Ireland, and how to ensure that cycle tourism can generate visitor spend in rural areas. This strategy forms a subset of the Fáilte […]

The Regional Planning Guidelines (RPGs) aim to give regional effect to the National Spatial Strategy and to guide the development plans for each county.  The RPGs inform the Development Plans in each Council area and have effect for six years. Transportation is one of the issues to be addressed by the Guidelines in accordance with […]

The National Spatial Strategy (NSS) is a coherent national planning framework for Ireland for the next 20 years. The NSS aims to achieve a better balance of social, economic and physical development across Ireland, supported by more effective planning. It promotes sustainable development by encouraging physical compactness, and minimising urban sprawl. The resulting shorter travel […]

Work is well underway on completing a new transport strategy for the Greater Dublin Area (Dublin, Kildare, Meath and Wicklow) for the period up to 2030 (“2030 Vision”). The Strategy will be inextricably linked to sustainable land use planning and will be directed by the economic, social, cultural and environmental needs of the people of […]

Ireland’s first National Cycle Policy Framework was launched in April 2009. It outlines 19 specific objectives, and details the 109 individual but integrated actions, aimed at ensuring that a cycling culture is developed in Ireland to the extent that, by 2020, 10% of all journeys will be by bike. It proposes a comprehensive package of […]

This is the transport policy for Ireland for the period 2009-2020. The policy recognises the vital importance of continued investment in transport to ensure an efficient economy and continued social development, but it also sets out the necessary steps to ensure that people choose more sustainable transport modes such as walking, cycling and public transport. […]

Advisory cycle lane should be mandatory Obligation on Cyclists to use Cycle Facilities The obligation on cyclists to use cycle infrastructure where provided (SI 182/1997, S.14[3]) was removed in October 2012 (SI 332/2012). The only exceptions to this relate to: 1. cycle tracks marked in pedestrian areas; 2. contra-flow cycle tracks in one-way streets; and 3. cycle tracks […]

Subject to Department Approval – See Traffic Signs Manual At toucan crossings, pedestrians and cyclists share the road space under a combined green-man and green bike signal stage, but pedestrians retain priority. Toucans are currently limited to mid-block locations. The principles governing toucan crossings may be extended to the all pedestrian phase at a junction, […]

Abrupt transition to carriageway There are situations where cyclists will need a combination of vertical and horizontal transition. A typical example would include moving from an off-road cycle track to a cycle lane in advance of a junction, and vice versa. It has proved difficult for builders to construct combination transitions, and it has been […]

Horizontal transitions are used to shift cyclists to the right or left. Examples include transitions in advance of a left-hand pocket, car parking and Island Type Bus Stops (See Section etc. Shifting Cycle Lane to the Right Provide a physical barrier such as a traffic island to protect cyclists from traffic behind. For legibility, […]

Vertical transitions involve shifting cyclists up and down from one level to another. Examples include transitions between road level and an adjoining raised track, or when bringing cyclists into or out of a shared pedestrian area. Cycle Track to Cycle Lane Ramp to have maximum slope of 5% Minimum longfall of 0.5% is required for […]

Legibility Complicated transition The design should ensure that the bicycle does not “pop out of nowhere” into the middle of traffic, or a pedestrian environment. Rather, the change in direction of the bicycle through the transition must be designed so that it anticipated and understood by the other road users, as well as the cyclist. […]

The following drawings illustrate how different main road traffic regimes interface with the unsignalised side road. Side Road joining Mixed Street Narrow side road in built up areas (6-7m, plus cycle lanes, if provided) For urban centres, stop or yield line at / behind rear of footpath Vehicle on side road makes two-stage progress, first […]

Left curve radius is too generous The objective is to control traffic movements and speed, and to ensure legibility for all road users. Key items to consider in making side roads more legible and cyclist-friendly are covered below. General Arrangement for Side Roads Narrow side road in built up areas (6-7m, plus cycle lanes, if […]

Overrun Areas can be provided on any of the roundabout types above in order to accommodate occasional larger vehicles. The overrun area is separate to the circulating lane and forms part of the internal central island. A 50mm kerb should be provided to between the circulating lane and the overrun area. The preferred width of […]

All approaches should have direction and “roundabout ahead” signs Central island should have “turn left” and “sharp change of direction” signs facing each entry, as well as appropriate lane and yield markings Cycle facilities, whether on the roundabout (continental style) or segregated, should be clearly signed and delineated for both cyclists and motorists Priority and […]

Many existing urban roundabouts were designed primarily from a motorist or capacity perspective, and are not conducive to safe pedestrian and cycling movements. Flared multi-lane approaches can be converted to single lane right-angled approach lanes as shown below. The benefits include a safer cyclist and pedestrian environment, slower speeds and reduced risk, greater legibility for […]

There are four types of roundabouts that can be used in urban areas for cyclists depending on the traffic speed and the design capacity of the junction. These are detailed below. Multi-lane roundabouts are not safe for cyclists. With one or more circulating lanes and/or multiple approach and exit lanes, the risk of collision is […]

Cycle lane on roundabout not recommended – should be shared Roundabouts in urban areas typically should have an external radius “R1” of between 5.0m and 16.0m. In order to minimise vehicular speeds, the width of the circulating lane “A” should not exceed 3.5m to 4.0m. Additional over-run areas can be provided at the central island, […]

No Cycle Lanes on Roundabouts Cycle lanes should not be included in the circulating section of roundabouts. Cyclists should be either mixed with traffic on roundabouts in a single circulating lane (i.e. cycle logos in the traffic lane, no cycle lane) or else segregated from traffic by physical means. Roundabout Capacity Depending on the traffic […]

The design principles are very similar to those for Side Roads of T-junctions. Approaching traffic should be slowed (to stopping speed). This provides better gap acceptance, greater legibility for drivers and a safer cycling environment. Traffic speed on the roundabout should also be controlled by means of a narrow gyratory lane. Approach arms should be […]

Controlled crossings facilitate cyclists and pedestrians by allowing them to stop traffic on the main road. Signals, activated automatically or by push button units will stop the traffic and give cyclists and pedestrians sufficient time to cross the road safely. Cycle Lane with Pelican Crossing Cycle lane approach to zebra crossing Solid line on cycle […]

A variety of uncontrolled crossings can allow cyclists and pedestrians to stop and cross the main traffic safely. These include solutions that passively reduce traffic speeds and/or address the crossing as a two-stage process. Cyclists and pedestrians must wait for a suitable gap in the traffic before crossing. The volume and speed of traffic on […]

On links where there may be high volumes of cyclists turning right, such as at a school entrance, Jug Turns can accommodate stacking cyclists while permitting straight ahead cyclists to continue through. Basic Jug Turn and Cycle Lane Jug-handle crossing Right hand uncontrolled crossing – waiting cyclist on inside of passing cyclists and traffic Pedestrians […]

Box Turns should be used on larger signalised junction to facilitate right turning cyclists. Cyclists stay to the left of the approach, move into a stacking area at the mouth of the side or cross road, and wait for the green phase. This arrangement avoids right turning cyclists having to weave across busy traffic lanes, […]

Right turning cycle facilities at junctions, entrances and private properties along multi lane roads approaches is generally not recommended. Cyclists would have to weave across at least two lanes of traffic with a much greater risk of being hit from behind. Dedicated Right Turning Facilities At certain junctions where traffic speeds are less then 50km/h, […]

On single carriageway roads and street where there is a low speed traffic regime, it is possible to facilitate cyclists weaving in order to make a right-hand turn into a side street or private entrance. Mixed Street In a mixed street environment, the cyclist should already occupy the centre of the traffic lane and can […]

Left hand pockets should be removed wherever possible. A simple solution is to re-assign the existing pocket as footpath, verge or parking so that the cyclist has the correct alignment. Where a left turning pocket cannot be removed, the layout can be modified to either shift cyclists to the right in advance of the pocket, […]

Left curve radius is too generous The problem of kerbside cyclists being cut out by a turning vehicle is universal. When that vehicle is a large vehicle, the issue becomes critical. Difficulties with Dedicated Slip Lanes Conflicts between the large turning vehicles and cyclists / pedestrians on left slip lanes present a significant risk. Slip […]

Subject to Department Approval – Refer to Traffic Signs Manual There can be a conflict between pedestrians crossing side roads and significant volumes of left turning traffic. In some urban situations, the solution has been to simply omit the pedestrian crossing. This manual proposes a solution as follows, subject to Department approval, whereby the pedestrian […]

    For long left hand lanes, consider segregated cycle track with signalisation On busier roads with higher vehicular capacity, multiple and/or dedicated lanes may be required for different movements. This section looks at left-hand pockets (30.0m or less) and dedicated left-turning lanes (greater than 30.0m) in conjunction with the straight ahead movement. Dedicated right-turning […]

Cyclists passing on the inside of a traffic queue can frequently find themselves in conflict with right turning traffic coming from the opposing direction to turn into a side road. This manual recommends that the cycle lane approaching the junction should be a minimum of 2.0m wide and that the cycle lane is continued through […]

This manual recommends that cycle facilities are re-established as on-road cycle lanes for the last 20 to 30m in advance of a significant left turn. The re-establishment zone provides time for vehicles and cyclists to observe each other and accommodate each other’s movements at the conflict point. This is as much to do with ensuring […]

Junctions are critical components of cycling networks, and cycle-friendly junctions facilitate the safe and efficient passage of all modes of transport. In urban areas, the majority of cycling accidents occur at or close to junctions. This is primarily due to the inherently complex nature of mixed mode movements at junctions. Better consideration and application of […]

Reduced Kerbs Heights between the cycle lane and footpath or verge, 50mm or lower, will not catch the underside of the pedal of the bicycle, and cyclists can cycle closer to the kerb. Side Draining Gullies with a uniform camber provide more effective width for cycling than surface gullies / drainage channels.

Space limited to single file only There are three basic elements that determine the width of a cycle lane or track, A, B, and C below. The space to the left of the cyclist; The space required to support the cycling regime (two-abreast, single file, overtaking etc) The space to the right of the cyclist. […]

Not enough space The designed width of a cycle facility is comprised of the effective width, i.e. the space that is “usable” by cyclists, as well as the clearances that will be required in different circumstances. How wide is a Cyclist? An individual adult cyclist on a conventional bicycle is approximately 750mm wide. A further […]

The programme should include all the improvements and their delivery timeframe. Ideally, proposals should be mapped and tabulated according to: Priority Urgency (safety) Cost Hierarchy level within the cycle network (principal, feeder, access) QOS improvement A detailed programme for the cycle network should also identify: Contingencies, dependencies or risks to delivery Land acquisitions, enabling works, […]

Steps 1 to 5 provide a view of existing cycle trips, future potential cycle trips, important zones and centres, forecast growth etc., mapped against the existing cycle provision. Step 6 maps and prioritises the key improvements required on routes within the cycle network and will normally identify: connections to key destinations routes where there is […]

Cycling does not operate in isolation from the other modes in transport planning. As such in cycle network planning it is also necessary to consider future proposals (both short and long-term) for the other transport modes. Early identification will ensure that potential conflicts can be avoided or reconciled. Map out other strategic proposals that could […]

The cycle network must cater for future needs as well as for existing latent demand. As such network planning should consider the likely growth in demand arising from: Future trends, expected policy outcomes, target mode shifts, etc. Development Plan projections for countywide and local areas Smarter Travel and the National Cycling Policy Framework set out […]

All existing and potential cycle trips need to be assigned to the Cycle Network so as to indicate where the greatest pressure for cycling is currently and will be in the future. This will allow for prioritisation of network improvements. In the absence of a dedicated cycling assignment model, trips can be assigned manually. The […]

Trip Demand An efficient and effective Cycle Network will target the greatest quantity of existing and potential cycle traffic.  This requires a knowledge of overall trip demand within the urban area (all trips by all modes), and an understanding of existing and potential cycling demand. The main sources of information on trip demand are: Census […]

The existing cycle network and wider urban area should be mapped and an inventory prepared, even if this is at informal level. The inventory will include: All roads where cycling is permitted All roads where cycling currently occurs Unofficial routes, through parks, on footpaths, through building complexes, through breaks in fences etc. Any links or […]

Advisory cycle lane should be mandatory Irish roads and streets tend not be uniform in terms of width, appearance, traffic layout etc. Therefore it would be exceptional that the cycle facility would remain constant along the entire length of a road. The key challenge for the detailed design of a cycle route is to offer […]

In most Irish towns and cities, there are other modes choices for urban trips besides the bike (e.g. car, bus, taxi etc.). In the case of the private car, it is important to remember that: it is normally convenient to the trip maker (outside the front door) it is warm and dry and comfortable it […]

Recent Irish experience points to the provision of dedicated cycling facilities “where there was space” (e.g. hard shoulders) at the farther extents of a route, with a cessation of provision for the bike (either in reductions in traffic intensity or through provision of space) approaching key destinations. It is essential that the bicycle mode be […]

An efficient design is one that achieves its objectives within the constraints imposed from the start. It is therefore essential that the brief for the design is clear regarding constraints and objectives. Design Constraints will typically include: Budget Timeframe Kerbside activity (loading, parking) and the degree to which it can be changed or removed Requirements […]

The Principles of Sustainable Safety remain central to all road and street design. At their core, they provide an excellent platform for conducting a “sense check” on designs of any type, but of cycling in particular. The common-sense questions include: Is the design fit for purpose, i.e. does it work for the bicycle; does it […]

Advisory cycle lane should be mandatory It is difficult to design for cycling without an experience of the mode. This website will include (in the future) some video footage taken of cycling, both from the cyclist’s perspective and from the point of view of other road users. However, this should not be considered a replacement […]

Advisory cycle lane should be mandatory It is recommended that the designer prepare a Map of the Quality of Service (QOS) for the cycle network.  Ideally, for routes serving primary destinations, the QOS should increase closer to the destination.  The highest QOS should be in the immediate vicinity of the primary destination itself. Typical primary […]

Directness is the most important requirement for network planning. Because of the effort and time involved, cyclists are highly intolerant of detours and additional journey length, etc. Major trip patterns should be as close to “as the crow flies” as possible.            

The Cycle Network should address the 5 Needs of the Cyclist. The first three needs, namely Safety, Coherence and Directness are considered central to network planning. Comfort and Attractiveness are not considered as significant factors in network planning, but remain important requirements at route and link level.

Local streets are generally not included in the Network (unless they are part of a route), but local areas should be connected to the overall Cycle Network. Cycling by its nature is local and most cycling is of 6km or less. Significant daily trips tend to be less than 4km, i.e. within the local neighbourhood. […]

Photo courtesy Sustrans The National Cycle Network needs to be connected to the Urban Cycle Network, and should be recognisable and legible within the urban area. Green Routes are provided specifically for tourist, recreational and leisure purposes, but can also address everyday trip demand. Green Routes should be connected to the Cycle Network, so that […]

The urban cycling network can have up to three levels: Primary Network: Main cycle arteries that cross the urban area, and carry most cycle traffic Secondary Network: Links between the principal cycle routes and local zones Feeder : Cycle routes within local zones, and/or connections from zones to the network levels above       […]

This section identifies the 9 steps to designing and delivery a good cycle project. The purpose of this flowchart is that all designers understand the sequential process that is essential to designing for bicycles. It is inadvisable to commence at any particular step with a clear output from all preceding steps. For example, it would […]

The route is as good as its weakest link If a solution for a particular bottleneck, accident location or poor QoS link cannot be found after considering the advice below, it is strongly recommended that no further cycling investment or cycling dependence is generated through that link or area. See Network Planning At a link […]

When designing a junction, apply the following 6 checks to each approach of the junction: When traffic is moving How does the cyclist go straight ahead? How does the cyclist turn right? How does the cyclist turn left? When traffic is stopped What is the cyclist’s approach, waiting position and delay for going straight ahead? What […]

The National Transport Authority was established in December 2009 (a) to regulate the provision of public transport services in the State and (b) within the Greater Dublin Area, to secure the development and implementation of an integrated transport system in a manner that contributes to environmental sustainability and social cohesion and promotes economic progress.

Quality of Service is measured by considering five criteria: Pavement Condition Index (PCI) is a measure of the physical integrity of the cycling surface. It is determined by comprehensive visual inspection as set down by the Department of Transport. n the absence of a formal PCI score, use a locally derived marking system out of […]

There are three basic elements that determine the width of a cycle lane or track, A, B, and C below. The space to the left of the cyclist; The space required to support the cycling regime (two-abreast, single file, overtaking etc) The space to the right of the cyclist. In addition, there may be additional […]

LOOK AT CATEGORY INSTEAD or POST CALLED Guidance Graph NOTES ON USING THE GUIDANCE GRAPH 1. There are two ways to use this graph Choose your preferred cycle environment Choose the type of facility you would like to have (e.g. mixed streets), and then reduce the speeds and volumes of traffic to an appropriate level. […]

The choice of bus options and the design issues associated with each are included below. There are three basic design-types. In-Line Bus Stops In-Line Bus Stop Option 1 Normal Use / Design Objectives Low to Medium Bus Flows (Headway 5 minutes or greater) Where it is necessary to provide conflict-free bus passenger movement Space […]

Regardless of which design is chosen, the bus stop arrangement should at least meet the following requirements. The design should comply with the requirements of the Disability Act 2005 Bus/cycle interchange facilities (including secure cycle parking bays) should be provided at bus stops where the demand exists, or where it is felt it can be […]

Cyclists must yield As noted above, a certain level of conflict with other transport modes is generally unavoidable at bus stop locations. From the cyclist’s perspective, possible sources of conflict might include passengers waiting at the bus stop passengers alighting from or entering the bus buses pulling into or away from the bus stop, interaction […]

Bus stations and bus stop design are included among the areas listed for action in the Sectoral Plan prepared by the Department of Transport as part of its response to the Disability Act, 2005. The plan requires that the needs of mobility-impaired persons must be taken into account when designing bus stops. For the purposes […]

NOTES ON USING THE GUIDANCE GRAPH 1. There are two ways to use this graph Choose your preferred cycle environment Choose the type of facility you would like to have (e.g. mixed streets), and then reduce the speeds and volumes of traffic to an appropriate level. This approach is appropriate when the designer’s intention is […]

Irish transport policy seeks to reduce private car dependence from 65% to 45% for commuting by 2020. It is essential that designers actively consider reducing traffic speed and volumes for all new traffic management schemes. When determining the appropriate cycle facility required, consider the possibility of providing for cyclists in a mixed traffic environment first. […]

Segregation refers to the physical separation of cyclists from motorised traffic, and can be provided by the following: Kerbs Kerbed plinths Bollards Soft margins or verges Crash barriers (National distributor roads only) Segregated facilities include: Cycle tracks Cycle trails Cycle ways Benefits of well designed segregated facilities include: Protection from motorised traffic Independence of vehicular […]

Space available for a wider mandatory cycle lane The designer has two basic options for an integrated scheme: Mixed: Where the cyclist is directly in front or behind vehicles Lanes: Where the cyclist is side-by-side with traffic Integrated facilities include: Narrow streets with no markings Streets with only basic traffic lane markings Streets with cycle […]

Posts 1.0 The Basics1.1.1 Functionality1.1.2 Homogeneity1.1.3 Legibility1.1.4 Forgivingness1.1.5 Self-awareness1.2.2 Coherence1.2.3 Directness1.2.4 Attractiveness1.2.5 Comfort1.3.1 Identify the Potential Conflict1.3.2 Assess the Potential Conflict1.3.3 Address the Potential Conflict1.3.4 Monitor the Outcome1.5.1 Determining Width1.5.2 Width Calculator1.7.2 Segregation1.7.3 Hierarchy of Provision1.7.4 Guidance Graph1.9.1 Pedestrians are Unpredictable Road Users1.9.2 Principles of Sustainable Safety1.9.3 Shared Facilities1.9.4 Bridges4.3.5 Contra Flow Cycle Lanes and […]

Typical Road Environment Roads for cyclists through parks Off-road short cuts Characteristics Few intersections with roadways High comfort levels due to absence of motorised traffic Crossings rather than junctions Combined utilitarian and leisure uses Key Issues to be Considered Need for compliance with Section 68 of Roads Act, 1993 Need for good visibility and lighting […]

Photo courtesy Sustrans Typical Road Environment Parks and green areas, Green Route cycle facilities along railways, canals, waterways, and shore-lines Characteristics Off-road and remote from vehicular traffic Mixed/shared use with other “soft” transport modes Functions primarily as leisure facility High comfort levels due to absence of motorised traffic Pedestrian priority in all cases of potential […]

The introduction of contra-flow cycle facilities within an urban one way system can significantly improve in directness and the attraction of cycling. This manual proposes contra-flow cycle lanes and tracks, depending on the volume and speed of the one way traffic. Contra Flow Cycle Lanes Typical Road Environment Access roads, quiet streets in town centres, […]

Cycle Tracks are different from Cycle Lanes in that they are physically segregated from motorised traffic. This is achieved by either a kerb with a level change, bollards etc. They have limited points of access and egress and therefore these locations need to be carefully detailed. Cycle tracks are generally for situations where the traffic […]

There are two options for cycling with buses. Cyclists can cycle with the buses in the bus lane, or a Mandatory Cycle Lane can be provided alongside the bus lane. Advisory Cycle Lanes with a bus lane are not recommended other than in the vicinity of bus stops. Some bus lanes are extremely busy traffic […]

Cycle lane should be wider and mandatory Cycle lanes are lanes on the carriageway that are reserved either exclusively or primarily for the passage of cyclists. They are normally located on the left or kerb side of the road and benefit from being included within the normal road maintenance programme. Because they are part of […]

Mixed or shared streets are suitable in low traffic single lane environments where cyclists and pedestrians take precedence over vehicular traffic. The key feature from a cycling perspective is that cyclists “take the lane” in line with vehicles. Where such streets are less than 5.5m in width, there should be no central lane marking, thereby […]

The principle of Self-Awareness is that where road users are aware of their own abilities and limitations to negotiate a road environment, the environment is safer. Consider in particular: Provide a higher Quality of Service close to locations where cyclists are less experienced or more limited, e.g. school children, parents with cycling trailers, tourists with […]

The principle of Forgivingness (Passive Safety) is that environments that contribute to benign outcomes of accidents are safer. Consider in particular: Falling: Should a cyclist lose balance or tumble, nearby traffic should have sufficient time and space to stop Evasion room: Non traffic areas could be used for evasion, e.g. grass verges Cross falls: Slope […]

The principle of Legibility is that a road environment that all road users can read and understand is safer. A legible design will be self-evident, self-explanatory, and self-enforcing. Legibility is equally necessary in both mixed and segregated cycling environments, and is not therefore simply about lane markings and streaming traffic. A legible road environment is […]

The principle of Homogeneity is that reducing the relative speed, mass and directional differences of different road users sharing the same space increases safety. This has a beneficial impact on the level and severity of accidents that might otherwise occur. Where the relative speed, mass or direction is not homogenous, different road users may need […]

The principle of functionality is that the design which is fit for purpose is safer. Urban streets, roads and spaces are always multi-functional. The functions are either movement or place related. It is important therefore that the designer understands and accommodates the functions applicable to the particular scheme. The lists below offer an aide-memoire to […]

The final step in the conflict management process is to monitor the effectiveness of the design measures implemented. Consider in particular: Review any subsequent accidents and identify if causes relate to conflicts already identified in Step 1 Provide a feed-back arrangement for user to comment / complain Review available accident data, including: RSA Accident database Site-specific […]

Potential conflict can be addressed by Removing, Reducing or Accepting, but also by Management. Removing – potential conflicts Remove potential conflict through design, e.g. smoother transitions, wider facilities, signal sequencing etc Divert or segregate conflicting road users Curtail particular network usage, e.g. truck ban, relocate bus stops, ban particular turns etc Remove the hazard, e.g. […]

Cyclists exposed to side swipe Where potential conflicts are identified, determine how likely they are to occur and how severe the outcome might be. Consider in particular: The level of risk, where Risk = Likelihood of occurrence  x Severity of outcome Are previous accidents likely to recur? Locality – are there particularly vulnerable users present? […]

Abrupt transition increases risk of conflict Review the junction or situation to identify possible conflict areas for all different modes of transport. Consider in particular: What is the “actual” usage pattern of the road as opposed to its Function and Design – especially regarding inappropriate speed, position and direction? The individual movements of different modes […]

Cycling infrastructure should be designed, built and maintained for ease of use and for comfort. This is particularly important for beginners, tourists and recreational cyclists. Anything that causes discomfort or delay, or requires a disproportionate amount of effort, is likely to result in the cycling facility not being used. Improved cycling comfort can be achieved […]

The cycling environment along a route should be pleasant and interesting. This is particularly important for beginners, tourists and recreational cyclists. Monotony and exposure to the elements are unattractive to cyclists, as are litter, uncontrolled animals and poorly maintained environments. Consider in particular: Shelter: Planting wind breaks. This can also provide visual interest. Maintenance: Keep […]

Cycling infrastructure should be as direct as possible, minimising any delays or detours. A well designed urban cycle network should confer an advantage in terms of average distance or journey time when compared with other transport networks. Consider in particular: Filtered Permeability: Positive advantage to cycling by providing short-cuts etc Traffic Signals: Sequencing of signals […]

The cycling network should link all main origin and destination zones / centres for cyclists. A well-targetted cycle network should carry the majority of cycle traffic (in cycle-km terms). Cycling routes within the network should be logical and continuous. Delays, detours, gaps or interruptions should be avoided. Markings and signage should be clear and consistent. […]

Designers of transport infrastructure must seek to maximise road safety for all road users, including cyclists. All networks should include measures that are proven to be safe and that the cyclist believes to be safe. Any perception of a lack of safety could be a deterrent to cycling, Consider in particular: Quality of Cycling Surface: […]

As noted in the Traffic Management Guidelines (ref. Chapter 15: “Public Transport”) buses must not only be able to move around the road network with minimum delay, but must also be able to pick up and set down passengers quickly and conveniently, if their full potential is to be achieved. Section 15.5 of the Traffic […]