Advance Stacking Locations; ASL   ASLs are red coloured areas at signalised junctions ahead of stopped vehicular traffic. They permit higher volumes of cyclists to stop and wait in a forward position. They facilitate cyclists moving off before other traffic.
All Pedestrian Stage   At signalised junctions, the All Pedestrian Stage is when all vehicular traffic is stopped and a green man is displayed simultaneously on all arms of a junction.
Attractiveness   One of the Five Needs of Cyclists, and a measure of the degree of shelter, comfort, lighting, maintenance and visual interest along a route. It is particularly important for beginners, tourists and recreational routes.
Balance   Balance is essential to cycling and is maintained by a combination of adequate forward momentum and handlebar adjustment.
Bevelled Kerb   A bevelled kerb facilitates vehicular movement from the carriageway to an entrance or driveways. They avoid the need for driveway aprons that render cycle tracks and footpaths uneven and bumpy.
Box Turn   Box turns, often referred to as “Left To Go right”, are used to facilitate cyclists turning right from multi-lane carriageways. Cyclists join the stopped traffic to their left and wait for the green signal to proceed – avoiding the need to weave across multiple lanes of traffic. In central urban areas, pedestrians will be slightly displaced from their desire line at the junction to accommodate box turns.
Bus Lane    
Combined Cycle and Bus Lane   A narrow 3.0m wide lane shared by both cyclists and buses and taxis. Speed limit of 50km/h and cycle logo required
Cycle Lane beside a Bus Lane   A separate cycle lane, minimum 1.5m wide, running alongside a 3.0m wide bus lane. Bus lane speed limit of 60km/h applies.
Retro-Fitting Cycling into Bus Lane   Similar to a Combined Cycle and Bus Lane where existing space available for a bus lane is greater than 3.0m but not wide enough to provide a separate cycle lane as well. The excess road surface over 3.0m should be hatched off, or given back to the footpath/verge.
Bus Stops    
In-Line   Cycle facility is In-Line with the Bus Stop. This design is the most space efficient.
Island   Cycle facility is brought behind the bus stop.
Kneeling   In this design, Kassel kerbs are not possible and buses are required to kneel in order to provide level access for passengers.
Coloured Surface   Coloured bitmac or specialist bitumen based material, usually red, to clearly identify points of conflict. Blue colour is also be used for more significant potential conflict points at junctions.
Comfort   One of the Five Needs of Cyclists, requiring consideration of width, gradients, stopping, delay, surface quality and shelter etc
Conferring advantage on the Bicycle   Designing in such a way that cyclists have priority or advantage over other modes, e.g. in terms of more direct routes, reduced delay, lanes approaching signals, more convenient parking etc
Conflict   The potential for collision. In other words, where two or more modes cross or approach each other.
Consistency   Ensuring that cyclists are afforded a consistent Quality of Service along a route.
Continuity   Ensuring that a cycle facility is continuous along a route, e.g. not disappearing intermittently or for short distances.
Contra-Flow   Cycle facilities designed to run contrary to the main traffic direction.
Cross Fall   The side slope of a pavement to facilitate good drainage. Cyclists are more comfortable when the direction of fall is away from the main traffic and not towards it.
Toucan   Signalised crossing that facilitates pedestrians and mounted cyclists to cross at the same time, but pedestrians retain priority. Not suitable for wide roads.
Pelican   Signalised crossing which permits stopped traffic to move off on a flashing amber if the pedestrian crossing is clear. Not suitable for wide roads.
Zebra   Non-signalised crossing where vehicular traffic must yield to pedestrians or cyclists intending to cross the road. For low speed environments.
Two-Stage Crossing   Crossings where each traffic direction of the carriageway is negotiated sequentially, with an intervening island.
Curve Radii   A measure of the geometry of a kerb at a turn. A small or ‘tight’ radius will reduce the speed of turning traffic and oblige the vehicle to “turn” at a tight angle rather than “veer” or “sweep” into the side road.
Cycle Lane    
General   A cycle facility that is marked on the main carriageway. Minimum width is 1.5m. Generally should not exceed 2.5m in width, to avoid confusion with a traffic lane
Advisory   A cycle lane identified by a broken white line where vehicular traffic can enter or cross the space. (The Dutch refer to these lanes as “suggestion lanes” as they merely suggest that motorists should avoid driving in them). Normally used where a Mandatory Lane would leave insufficient space for traffic or at junction approaches at locations where vehicles need to cross the cycle facility. Parking and loading is allowed unless specifically restricted.
Contra Flow   A cycle lane is provided on a one way street running against the main traffic flow where the traffic speed is no more than 30km/h. Parking and loading ar e not permitted.
Mandatory   A cycle lane identified by a solid white line prohibiting vehicular traffic except for access and where parking and loading is not permitted. Usually 24 hour unless time plated.
Raised   Similar to Mandatory Lanes but raised 25 to 50mm above the main carriageway surface. These are always 24 hour and parking is never permitted.
Cycle Links   The cycle facility between junctions.
Cycle Network   A system of connected cycle routes, serving all local zones in the urban area.
Cycle Routes   A set of connected links and junctions that follow logical corridors between zones or urban centres.
Cycle Track    
General   Cycle facility that is physically segregated from vehicular traffic by a level change or other physical means such as bollards.
At Grade   Cycle facility at carriageway level but is segregated by a continuous kerb or line of bollards
Behind Verge   A verge separates the cycle facility from traffic. The verge can be grass or paved.
Contra Flow   Segregated cycle facility provided on a one way street running against the main traffic flow where the main traffic speed is greater than 30km/h.
Raised   Cycle facility is alongside the carriageway but raised above to kerb level. Suitable for main carriageway speeds up to 80km/h. Also called “raised adjeacent”
Two-Way   Facility designed to accommodate contra-flow cyclists as well as with-flow cyclists. On two-way cycle facilities, contra-flow cyclists lose all expectation of priority at junctions. Typically used where multi-lane district distributor and collector roads have infrequent crossing points or where there is only development on one side of the road, or where the time penalty for crossing the road to travel with-flow is too great.
Cycle Trail   Cycle facility in a non-vehicular environment, typically serving green routes, parks, waterways, shores etc. Pedestrians take priority in all cases of potential conflict.
Cycle Way   Roads for cyclists exclusively, often provided through parks or as off-road short cuts.
Cycling Regime   A dedicated let turning facility > 30.0m in length, typically used with higher levels of left turning vehicles. Will generally require a signalised cycle track.
Dedicated Left-Turning   A dedicated let turning facility > 30.0m in length, typically used with higher levels of left turning vehicles. Will generally require a signalised cycle track.
Dedicated Left Turning Pocket   A short lane additional left turning traffic but which permits designers to consider streaming for cyclists.
Dedicated Right Turn Cycle Facility   A dedicated facility with an ASL that allows cyclists to weave across a single traffic before traffic starts to split into separate traffic streams.
Delay   From a cyclist perspective, anything that causes unnecessary stopping or deviation and gives rise to extended journey times.
Delineation   Using a painted line to mark off space intended as a cycle or traffic lane. Delineation is no segregation: it does not ensure separation. Delineation should not be used to separate cyclists from pedestrians – consider segregation or shared space instead.
Directness   One of the Five Needs of Cyclists, requiring cycle routes to be as direct as possible (compared with “as the crow flies”) avoiding detours and deviation.
Drainage   Removal of surface water on cycle surfaces and avoidance of ponding.
Entrances   Refers to the access and egress to properties from carriageways.
Eye Contact   Essential between cyclists and motorists particularly at junctions or other potential points of conflict.
Feeder Lane   A lane that is provided to bring cyclists past stationary traffic to a junction or an ASL. Should be mandatory generally.
Flares   Local widening of carriageway at a junction to facilitate traffic doubling up approaching a junction – not recommended.
Forgivingness   A Principle of Sustainable Safety, and is a measure of the degree to which an environment will contribute to a benign outcome in the event of an accident. In other words, minor errors by vulnerable road users do not result in serious injury or loss of life.
Functionality   A Principle of Sustainable Safety, that the design is fit for purpose – both functional and place related.
Green Routes   Routes that are free of vehicles and cater for pedestrians and cyclists as well as recreational uses.
Hierarchy of Provision   A proposed approach in the National Cycle Policy Framework to considering traffic regime changes in advance of infrastructural provision.
Homogeneity   A Principle of Sustainable Safety, that reducing the relative speed, mass and direction of different modes increases safety.
Inside Edge   Refers to the physical nature of the (usually) left hand side of a cycle facility, and could be a wall, grass, a kerb etc
Integration   Cycling with the general traffic, with or without marked cycle lanes.
Journey Time   The time taken to get from origin to destination.
Jug Turn   A form of right turn used to facilitate high volumes of cyclists turning right, such as at a school entrance.
Kerb-side Hatching   Hatching to keep traffic away from the kerb and allow cyclists to approach a junction past stationary traffic. Used in low volume and low speed environments where there is insufficient space to accommodate a proper cycle lane.
Late Release Left Hand Turn   Subject to Departmental approval, permits left turning traffic to proceed on a flashing amber filter, yielding to any pedestrians crossing.
Left Hand Pocket   A dedicated left turning facility shorter than 30.0m. Not generally recommended, but where provided, can be with or without a dedicated left turn cycle lane.
Left Hand Slip Lane   A priority facility for traffic to proceed on a yield arrangement, in an otherwise signalised junction. Not recommended.
Left-To-Go-Right   Left-To-Go-Right, often referred to as “Box Turns”, is used to facilitate cyclists turning right from multi-lane carriageways. Cyclists join the stopped traffic to their left and wait for the green signal to proceed – avoiding the need to weave across multiple lanes of traffic.
Legibility   A Principle of Sustainable Safety, that a road environment that can read and understood by all road users is safer.
Local Streets   Low traffic environments where cyclists and pedestrians take precedence over vehicular traffic, and where cyclists “take the lane” in line with vehicles.
Long Fall   Refers to the longitudinal fall or gradient along a cycle facility.
Merging   Where two or more streams of road users are brought together into a single stream or lane.
Mixed Street   Where cyclists share the same space with traffic.
Outside Edge   Refers to the physical nature of the (usually) right hand side of a cycle facility, and could be a painted line or a kerb etc
Overrun Area   A slightly raised paved area at a turn that will facilitate a large vehicle tracking around an otherwise tight junction.
Pavement Condition Index; PCI   A measure of the physical integrity of the cycling surface – measured out of 100 points.
Pedestrian Priority Area   A area where pedestrians have priority over all other road users.
Principles of Sustainable Safety   Developed in 1992 and subsequently in the Netherlands, they underpin all road design. Adherence to them has contributed to the Netherlands leading record in road safety.
Quality of Service   Essentially a measure of the transport offer to cyclists. A measure of the degree to which the attributes and needs of the cyclist are met.
Re-Establishing   Bringing cycle tracks and off-road cycle facilities to an on-road position in advance of a junction – typically for significant left turns.
Relative Speed   Speed differential between two road users.
Right of Way   In Ireland, all road users have equal right of way. However, all road users, including emergency vehicles and cyclists alike, are expected to proceed with due care and consideration for other road users in all cases.
Roundabout   Essentially a necklace of T junctions where the traffic joins by turning left onto and off the roundabout. They are priority junctions that can facilitate relatively high volumes of turning traffic Cycle and pedestrian friendly roundabouts are included in this manual. There are all single lane entry and single traffic lane circulating designs.
Segregation   Cycling on dedicated cycle tracks or cycle ways that are separated from the general traffic by a physical barrier.
Self-Awareness   A Principle of Sustainable Safety, that when road users are aware of their own abilities and limitations to negotiate a road environment, the environment is safer.
Set Back Stop and Yield Line   At side roads in central urban areas, where emerging traffic stops and yields in advance of the crossing pedestrian desire line – usually the building or boundary line.
Set Back Stop Line (signals)   Used a tight junctions to facilitate larger vehicles that may need to track well into the junction to complete their turn.
Shared Pedestrian Footpath   Not generally recommended as they offer reduced or poor Quality of Service and safety to pedestrians and cyclists. Pedestrians should always have priority, clearly reinforced by signage.
Shared Street   A street design where pedestrians can expect priority in the vehicular part of the street. Generally kerb free.
Shifting the Cyclist Right   Bringing cyclists out from the kerb to their correct alignment in advance of kerb side parking, loading bays, a left hand pocket or certain bus stops.
Side Entry Gully   Drainage gully that receives run off through the ‘face’ of the kerb, thereby maximising the unobstructed available road surface for cycle facilities.
Side Road   A smaller road joining a larger road. Will present as a T-junction if approached from the side road, or as a left or right turn from the main road depending of the direction of travel.
Side Swipe   An oblique collision along the side of a vehicle. The risk of side-swipe increases where vehicles are merging or weaving. Side-swipe is a serious hazard for cyclists and should be addressed
Skill Level   Refers to cycling competency.
Stability   A pre-requisite of cycling, and hampered by poor surface conditions, obstructions and steep gradients.
Streaming   Cycling between two adjacent lanes of traffic.
Taking the Lane   Cycling in the middle of the lane rather than close to the kerb so as to be in-line with vehicular traffic
T-Junction   A minor road joins a larger road at (nominally) right angles.
Transition   Transforming from one cycle facility to another by means of a vertical or horizontal change, or a combination of both.
Trip Demand   A measure of the usage requirements of all modes determined by census data, surveys and transport models.
Trip Forecast   A measure of future usage requirements of all modes informed by development plan projections, target modal shifts, future trends and expected policy outcomes.
Two-Way Cycle Facilities   Facilities designed to accommodate contra-flow cyclists as well as with-flow cyclists. On two-way cycle facilities, contra-flow cyclists lose all expectation of priority at junctions.
Vulnerable Road User; VRU   Road users who are most at risk – pedestrians and cyclists, specifically children, the elderly and people with mobility impairments
Weaving   Cyclists wishing to turn right will move across traffic so as to get into the correct road position or lane. Designs should not require cyclist to weave across multiple traffic lanes.
Width   Refers to the effective width of a cycle facility.
Wobble Room   The additional space needed to maintain balance at slow speeds, or starting up.